Science glossary

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Alkyd resin
Synthetic resin mainly used as binder in paints and varnishes

The alkyd resin is a macromolecule obtained after an esterification reaction between a polyol, an aromatic polyacid and a fatty acid. By wisely choosing the reagents, it is possible to master the alkyd resin properties: hardness, brightening, chemical and mechanical resistances…

Gas-liquid equilibrium in which liquid and gas have the same composition.

An azeotrope, also called constant heating point mixture, is a homogeneous liquid mixture with a constant boiling point. At this temperature, the created gas has the same composition as the liquid mixture.

Material able to gather several compounds into a uniform mixture.

A binder is a material (molecule or macromolecule) which main function is to gather several compounds into a uniform mixture. By wisely functionalizing this binder, it is possible to provide additional properties to the final mixture.

Decrease of a solution concentration.

Dilution is a process in which a solution concentration is decreased by adding a solvent. Solvent and solution must be perfectly miscible.

Dissociation of a compound into a liquid phase.

Dissolution is a process in which a solid is totally dissociated into a liquid. This mixture is gathered into a homogeneous phase. The compound that can be dissolved can be either solid or gaseous.

Inhomogeneous mixture of two liquids.

An emulsion is a stable mixture of two non miscible liquids. The less voluminous liquid is stabilized as droplets into the most voluminous liquid. For instance, mayonnaise is a water into oil emulsion.

Fatty acid
Carboxylic acid with a long carbon chain.

A fatty acid is a molecule with a long carbon chain (more than 4 carbon atoms) that ends with a carboxylic acid functional group. Most of the fatty acids can be found in nature, such as organic lipids.

Conception of active material matrix.

Formulation is a method whose objective is to develop a finished and homogeneous product from interesting molecules. For example, polyphenolic cosmetic creams or active molecules nutraceutical tablets are formulated.

Functional group
Atoms gathered which have a predictable function .

A funtional group is an atoms gathering which have a known function. It allows to predict the reactivity of the molecule.

Mechanical deformation resistance.

Hardness is the capacity of a compound to resist mechanical and scattering constraints. There are several hardness measurement methods such as Persoz pendulum method.

Pouring of a boiling liquid onto a solid.

Infusion is an extraction method consisting in pouring a boiling liquid onto a solid and then letting the mixture cool down. The key for a good infusion is to find a solvent which boiling point is below the damaging temperature of interesting molecules.

Diving a solid into a liquid.

Maceration is an extraction process in which solids are dived into a liquid. Solids compounds must not be soluble into the liquid. Maceration key is to find a solvent able to extract specifically the desired interesting molecules.

Capacity of a liquid to mix with others.

Two liquids are miscible if they can homogenousely mix with each other. Example: ethanol and water are miscible. Oil and water are not miscible.

Material made of polymers.

An oil is a greasy substance mainly made of long macromolecules and unable to mix with water homogeneousely.

Macromolecule made of few monomers.

An oligomer is a specific polymer, made of a small quantity of monomers (mostly less than 10).

Long molecule formed with a chain of small units.

A polymer is a long molecule composed of several molecular units, linked together and forming a chain. The polymer properties depend on the units properties. Often, the polymer is called “poly[name of the initial molecule used to obtain this polymer]”. Such as polyethylene, macromolecule obtained from ethylene.

Molecule with several alcohol functions.

A polyol is a molecule possessing several alcohol functions. Amongst the most known are polyphenols or glycerol.

Molecules family containing several phenol groups.

A polyphenol is an organic molecules family that can be found in a lot of plants. It is characterized by, at least, two phenol groups, composed of one phenyl group on which an alcool function is located.

Boiling a liquid phase without any loss.

Reflux is a process in which the liquid mixture is boiled, without any loss. Most of the time, the formed gas condensate back in the liquid thanks to a cooling column

Natural or synthetic polymer that can be used as raw material for industry

Resin is a macromolecule extracted from plants or from synthesis. The material is either solid or viscous. It can be used into paints, varnishes, plastics and adhesives.

Liquid containing a substance dissolved in it.

When a liquid is mixed with a substance, and both form a perfectly homogeneous mixture, it is called a solution.

Fluid able to dissolve, dilute or extract substances.

A solvent is a fluid (most of the time a liquid, but it can also be a gas) used to dissolved dilute or extract compounds without altering their chemical properties.

Human action of transforming a molecule.

Synthetic molecules are obtained after several chemical reactions intentionally made by human beings.

Vegetal extraction
Isolation of one or several interesting vegetal molecules.

Vegetal extraction is a process consisting of isolating one or several interesting molecules from a plant. It concerns a lot of chemical technics, such as maceration, reflux or infusion.

Liquid sinking capacity .

Viscosity is the capability of a liquid to sink. The more sinkable a liquid is, the less viscous it is. There are several viscosity measurement methods, such as the pendant drop method.

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